Haloperidol schizophrenia

As with all antipsychotic agents HALDOL has been associated with persistent dyskinesias. Tardive dyskinesia, a syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible, involuntary , dyskinetic movements, may appear in some patients on long-term therapy or may occur after drug therapy has been discontinued. The risk appears to be greater in elderly patients on high-dose therapy, especially females. The symptoms are persistent and in some patients appear irreversible. The syndrome is characterized by rhythmical involuntary movements of tongue, face, mouth or jaw (., protrusion of tongue, puffing of cheeks, puckering of mouth, chewing movements). Sometimes these may be accompanied by involuntary movements of extremities and the trunk.

Some people who abuse drugs show symptoms similar to those of schizophrenia, and people with schizophrenia may be mistaken for people who are high on drugs. While most researchers do not believe that substance abuse causes schizophrenia, people who have schizophrenia abuse alcohol and/or drugs more often than the general population.

Haloperidol is a typical butyrophenone type antipsychotic that exhibits high affinity dopamine D 2 receptor antagonism and slow receptor dissociation kinetics. [42] It has effects similar to the phenothiazines . [17] The drug binds preferentially to D 2 and α 1 receptors at low dose (ED 50 = and  mg/kg, respectively), and 5-HT 2 receptors at a higher dose (ED 50 =  mg/kg). Given that antagonism of D 2 receptors is more beneficial on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and antagonism of 5-HT 2 receptors on the negative symptoms, this characteristic underlies haloperidol's greater effect on delusions, hallucinations and other manifestations of psychosis. [43] Haloperidol's negligible affinity for histamine H 1 receptors and muscarinic M 1 acetylcholine receptors yields an antipsychotic with a lower incidence of sedation, weight gain, and orthostatic hypotension though having higher rates of treatment emergent extrapyramidal symptoms .

Estimates of the heritability of schizophrenia is around 80%, which implies that 80% of the individual differences in risk to schizophrenia is explained by individual differences in genetics. [57] These estimates vary because of the difficulty in separating genetic and environmental influences. [58] The greatest single risk factor for developing schizophrenia is having a first-degree relative with the disease (risk is %); more than 40% of monozygotic twins of those with schizophrenia are also affected. [14] If one parent is affected the risk is about 13% and if both are affected the risk is nearly 50%. [57]

Haloperidol schizophrenia

haloperidol schizophrenia

Estimates of the heritability of schizophrenia is around 80%, which implies that 80% of the individual differences in risk to schizophrenia is explained by individual differences in genetics. [57] These estimates vary because of the difficulty in separating genetic and environmental influences. [58] The greatest single risk factor for developing schizophrenia is having a first-degree relative with the disease (risk is %); more than 40% of monozygotic twins of those with schizophrenia are also affected. [14] If one parent is affected the risk is about 13% and if both are affected the risk is nearly 50%. [57]

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