Skywave modes of radio communication operate by bending ( refracting ) radio waves ( electromagnetic radiation ) through the Ionosphere . During the "peaks" of the solar cycle, the ionosphere becomes increasingly ionized by solar photons and cosmic rays . This affects the propagation of the radio wave in complex ways that can either facilitate or hinder communications. Forecasting of skywave modes is of considerable interest to commercial marine and aircraft communications , amateur radio operators and shortwave broadcasters . These users occupy frequencies within the High Frequency or 'HF' radio spectrum that are most affected by these solar and ionospheric variances. Changes in solar output affect the maximum usable frequency , a limit on the highest frequency usable for communications.
Standard Work: Standard work lists the normal tasks done with the least amount of waste possible at the current time (of course, it will continually be improved.) Standard work includes the amount of time needed for each task. Standard work focuses on the employee, not the equipment or the materials. Standard work is completed by the actual operator performing the task since they know best the details of the process. Standard work is often confused with work standards and/or work instructions. They are not the same thing. Standard work reduces variation an increases consistency that is necessary for first-time quality.
@Alvin – That’s a great question. From my own experience with my training clients, I never had one client lose an ounce of muscle while losing fat (well actually one who tried a very low carb diet when he was already lean). This is because they did intense strength training, did not go too low on the calorie deficit, and ate sufficient protein (roughly per pound of body weight). I think if you follow these 3 guidelines, you can keep the vast majority of your muscle mass. As you start getting around 10-12% body fat, it’s very possible that you lose a little muscle mass. So let’s say a bodybuilder looking to get shredded for competition may lose 3-5lb of muscle as he strips his body of all the fat he can.